REPORT FOR - May 2013

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Case 1: Elephant Treatment at Naboisho conservancy Date: 16th May 2013 Species: Elephant Age: Adult (35-40yrs) Sex: Male History The elephant was reported by the conservancy to be injured, lethargic and isolated from the rest of the herd for about two days. They suspected it was injured elsewhere and sought refuge in the conservancy. General examination On arrival we found the elephant isolated, weak and with visible injuries. We then made a decision to immobilize for further examination. Immobilization and physical examination The elephant was immobilized using 15mg Etorphine Hcl remotely delivered through Daninject Darting system. The drugs took effect after 8 minutes and the elephant went down assuming a left lateral recumbency. On physical examination all vital parameters were within range. Notable findings were as follows: An open wound on the left forelimb at the level of Carpus, joint capsule was intact. Suspected poisoned arrow was retrieved from the right tarsus, the joint capsule was also intact. An open wound at the right carpal joint, joint capsule was also intact. Retrieved a suspected poisoned arrow from the right shoulder region. All the wounds were septic. Treatment The wounds were probed and cleaned with copious amount of water. Debridement was also done using hydrogen peroxide and cauterization with lugols iodine. Topical Tetracycline spray was applied to the wounds and green clay applied. 15000mg Amoxicillin antibiotic was given intramuscularly; in addition, 1500mg Flunixin as Flunixin meglumine was given intramuscularly to relieve pain.

The immobilized bull  The wound before treatment

Disinfecting the wound after cleaning  The arrow head removed from the wound

The bull awake after the reversal drug is administered  Helping the bull up

The bull back on its feet after treatment

Revival 48mg Diprenorphine was given through the ear vein. The elephant was assisted by use of ropes to rise up. Prognosis Favourable Case 2: Post Mortem of an Elephant Date: 19th May 2013 Species: Elephant Sex: Female Age: Sub adult (9-10yrs) Location: Oldonyiso, Olorte location (Entasikirai) GPS location: 36M0813394, UTM 9785140. Case History The Kenya Wildlife Service Security patrol team at Naikara came across this carcass and requested the veterinary team on the ground to carry out post mortem to ascertain possible cause of death. They reported that both tusks were missing. General examination of the carcass On examination, the following were noted: Carcass on left lateral recumbency Carcass in good body condition, body score of 4.5 on a scale of 1-5 where 1 is poor and 5 perfect. The carcass was beginning to putrefy, maggots beginning to invest and the carcass was about 3-4 days old Both tusks were missing, suggestively removed by crude hacking The trunk was dismembered and thrown about 5 meters away from the carcass Multiple injuries suspected to have been spear inflicted were variably distributed. Post mortem Examination On opening the carcass, the following significant findings were noted: A penetrating wound was found on the left Para lumbar region deep into the rectum, measuring 2 inches in width and 5 inches deep. Fecal mass was found floating in the peritoneum as a result of this. A penetrating wound on the left lower thoracic region that went into the pleural cavity with resultant bulging of both the intestines and lungs through the opening. Two penetrating injuries on the left upper thoracic region. The wounds were posterior-anteriorly directed (oblique) this caused massive hematoma on the pleura as a result of cardiac puncture. The liver appeared cooked and friable The spleen was flaccid and beginning to putrefy All the wounds were suspected to have been caused by a poison-laced spear(s)

The dead elephant  Beginning the post mortem

Conclusion This elephant died because of complications caused by the mentioned injuries. Major organs which included the heart, lungs and rectum were involved. There was massive loss of blood as a result of cardiac puncture that could have caused hypovolaemic shock. There was evidence of gross contamination of the peritoneum by fecal matter as a result of rectal tear. The cooked appearance and friable consistency of the liver could suggest poisoning delivered by the spear The missing tusks, multiple sharp object inflicted injuries highly suggest human involvement in the death of this elephant. Case 3: Post mortem Date: 20th May 2013 Species: Elephant Sex: Male Age: Adult (38-40yrs) Location: Olkinyei conservancy GPS: 36M0772272, UTM9851213 History A post mortem examination was requested by the Kenya Wildlife Service Narok station after their patrol team came across this carcass. General examination of the carcass Both tusks were missing. Carcass had putrefied and was more than 5 days old. The carcass was not intact and the viscera could not be traced presumably eaten by scavengers. The body parts were dismembered and scattered around. Conclusion State of the carcass could not reveal the possible cause(s) of death.

The dead bull  The bull's remains

Case 4: Treatment of an injured lion Date: 21st May2013 Species: Lion Age: Adult Location: Musiara gate GPS Location: 36M0729487, UTM9860048 History The Governors camp management reported a lion which had a recurrent wound on the face, just above the right eye. This lion is a member of the famous Mara marsh pride. He is nick-named scar face because of a permanent scar on its face. This scar occasionally gets abrassed especially after a fight with other lions. This wound has been treated on several occasions before. General examination On general examination, the lion was in good body condition having fed overnight on a buffalo they killed with other pride members. The wound was obviously discernible from a distance. Immobilization and physical examination A combination of 4mg medetomidine Hcl and 290mg of ketamine Hcl was delivered remotely using Daninject darting system. It took 12minutes for full effect of the drug to be achieved. A top up of 1mg medetomidine Hcl and 100mg ketamine Hcl was injected intramuscularly by hand. Eye ointment was applied in both eyes to prevent the cornea from drying and a blind fold used. On physical examination, the lion was in good body condition and the vital parameters were within range. An old healing wound suspected to have been refreshed by a fight with other lions was observed. Additional scratch wounds were observed on the lower right side of the face. The wounds were clean. Treatment The wounds were cleaned with surgical spirit and Lugols iodine applied. Oxytetracycline wound spray was administered topically. 3000Mg Amoxicillin antibiotic was given intramuscularly. In addition, 10mg dexamethasone Hcl was given intramuscularly.

The injured lion before immobilization  One of the wounds

Examining the lion  The lion after treatment

Revival 15mg Atipamizole Hcl injected intramuscularly one hour after the last ketamine dose. The lion recovered smoothly after five minutes. Prognosis Good. Case 5: Collection of blood for serum collection A healthy adult Male elephant approximately 30yrs was identified within Mara conservancy near Keekorok lodge. This was our candidate for blood collection. The blood is to be used for serum extraction. The serum will be used to boost immunity of elephant orphans. Ten pints of whole blood was collected via ear vein. Immobilization 15mg Etorphine Hcl was administered using Daninject system. It took eight minutes for the drug to take effect. The elephant assumed a left lateral recumbency. Revival 48mg Diprenorphine Hcl was given through ear vein after blood collection. The whole process took twenty minutes and it was successful.

The darted bull

Case 6: Treatment of an Elephant Date: 24th may, 2013 Age: Adult Sex: Male Location: Sekenani gate History The Masai Mara county council security patrol team reported to have seen a wounded elephant amongst a herd that recently came into the park from an unknown location. It was suspected to have come with the injury. General examination The elephant was in good body condition but was isolated from the rest of the herd. There was a swelling on the right flank with mild purulent discharge. Immobilization and examination 16mg Etorphine Hcl and 1500 IU of Hyalase was delivered through Daninject system. The drug took effect after eight minutes and the elephant assumed a left lateral recumbency. On physical examination, vital parameters were within range. There was a swelling on the right flank with slight purulent discharge through a small opening. The opening was extended ventrally to expose the contents of the swelling. This revealed an organized abscess whose contents had partially been expunged. The capsule was in-situ with a small pocket of pus Treatment The capsule was excised with its contents and copious amounts of water used to clean the wound. Hydrogen peroxide was also applied to debride and Lugols iodine used to disinfect. Topical tetracycline wound spray was used. 15000mg Amoxicillin antibiotic was given intramuscularly and 1500mg Flunixin meglumine injected intramuscularly to relieve pain.

Preparing to dart the bull  Probing the wound for foreign objects

Cleaning the wound  The wound after it is cleaned

The bull back on its feet after the reversal drug is administered

Reversal 48mg Diprenorphine Hcl was given through the ear vein. Prognosis Good. Case no 7: Post mortem Date: 25th May 2013 Species: Elephant Sex: Female Age: Adult Location: Naishi, Aitong GPS: 36M0755826, UTM9870690 History Kenya Wildlife Service patrol team with the Mara Elephant Project scouts came across this carcass on their routine patrol. They then requested post mortem services from the resident veterinarian to ascertain the probable cause of death. Carcass examination On examination of the carcass, the following findings were noted: The Elephant was a young adult of between 20-25years. The carcass was putrefied with massive maggot infestation; approximate age of the carcass was 6-8 days old. Both tusks were missing.

The dead elephant with the tusks missing  Checking the depth of the wound

Parts of the carcass were shrewn all over by scavengers. Of importance was a deep penetrating wound inflicted by sharp object on the anterior upper thoracic region. This was slightly behind the right scapula and it went through the intercostal space right into the pleura. The depth of the wound was about ten inches and two and a half inches wide. This wound was probably caused by spearing Conclusion The probable cause of death was traumatic injuries to vital organs located in the thoracic region. These include: the heart, lungs and major blood vessels. The missing tusks and sharp object inflicted injury highly suggest human involvement in the death of this elephant. During the month, two orphans, a Zebra foal and a Buffalo calf were rescued. Both were less than two weeks old. Their mothers were said to have been killed by Lions. They were both referred to Nairobi Animal Orphanage for fostering. Report by: Dr. Campaign Limo

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