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The Sheldrick Wildlife Trust exists to protect Africa’s wildlife and to preserve habitats for the future of all wild species...
Years protecting wildlife
Where we work
The Sheldrick Wildlife Trust embraces all measures that complement the conservation, preservation and protection of wildlife and habitats.
Working across Kenya, our projects include anti-poaching, safe guarding the natural environment, enhancing community awareness, addressing animal welfare issues, providing veterinary assistance to animals in need, rescuing and hand rearing elephant and rhino orphans, along with other species that can ultimately enjoy a quality of life in wild terms when grown.
Born from one family’s passion for Kenya and its wilderness, the Sheldrick Wildlife Trust is one of the pioneering conservation organisations for wildlife and habitat protection in East Africa.
We are best known for our work with elephants, operating the most successful orphan elephant rescue and rehabilitation program in the world. While the Orphans’ Project is the heart of the organisation, it cannot exist in isolation and over the last 40 years the Sheldrick Wildlife Trust has developed an extensive, multi-faceted approach to conservation to ensure a greater and long-lasting impact for wildlife.
Through our Aerial, Anti-Poaching and Mobile Veterinary Units, we are actively safeguarding the natural environment and providing immediate assistance to wild animals in need. Our renowned Orphans’ Project allows us to respond to and rescue orphaned baby elephants, rhinos and other wild species across Kenya, so that they might enjoy a life back in the wild when grown.
Community Outreach engages us with local people living alongside wildlife, while our Saving Habitat initiative is focused on securing irreplaceable wilderness areas so that animals will always have space to roam.
Working alongside the Kenya Wildlife Service, the Kenya Forest Service and local communities our multifaceted approach to conservation is underpinned by our collaboration with local communities bordering Kenya’s National Parks. Working alongside Kenya’s local people is paramount in securing a safe and bright future for both wildlife, humans and reducing human-wildlife conflict.
Founded in 1977 by Dr Dame Daphne Sheldrick DBE, in memory of her late husband, famous naturalist and founding Warden of Tsavo East National Park, David Leslie William Sheldrick MBE, the Sheldrick Wildlife Trust claims a rich and deeply rooted family history in wildlife and conservation.
In 1948, David Sheldrick began his renowned career within the Royal National Parks of Kenya, where he worked unwaveringly for over two decades transforming Tsavo, a previously unchartered and inhospitable land, into Kenya’s largest and most famous National Park. David Sheldrick stands out, even today, as one of Africa’s most famous and proficient pioneer National Park Wardens.
For over 25 years Kenya-born Daphne Sheldrick lived and worked alongside David, during which time they raised and successfully rehabilitated many wild species.
Daphne Sheldrick’s involvement with wildlife spanned a lifetime, and she was a recognized international authority on the rearing of wild creatures and was the first person to perfect the milk formula and husbandry needed to successfully raise infant milk-dependent Elephants and Rhinos.
Since the death of her husband, Daphne, and her family, lived and worked in the Nairobi National Park where they built The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust and its pioneering Orphans’ Project into the global force for wildlife conservation that is today. Daphne's daughter Angela worked alongside her mother running the Trust for twenty years, and since Daphne’s passing in 2018 continues the mission with passion and vigor ably supported by her husband Robert Carr-Hartley, their two sons Taru and Roan and the Sheldrick Wildlife Trust team.
Sheldrick Wildlife Trust moments over the years
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David Sheldrick, the founder warden of Tsavo National Park, and his team rescuing Sobo. David implemented and managed all wildlife protection initiatives and security operations in Tsavo East from 1948 up until 1976.
Aisha who arrived in our care just days old, the pioneering lessons first learnt raising her in the seventies have proved pivotal to our success with the infant orphaned elephants later raised through the Nairobi Nursery.
The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust is founded in memory of the late David Sheldrick, who passed away in 1977.
Daphne Sheldrick is granted permission by the Kenyan Government to live in the Nairobi National Park to continue her conservation work.
The Nairobi Elephant Nursery is founded with arrival of infant elephant, Olmeg.
Daphne Sheldrick is awarded an MBE by Her Majesty Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, for her services to conservation.
Olmeg and Taru, the first elephant orphans raised at the Nursery, are translocated to Voi Reintegration Unit.
Eleanor reintegrated back into the wild in Tsavo National Park.
Emily, star of BBC Elephant Diaries, is translocated to the Voi Reintegration Unit.
Magnum and Magnette hand-raised orphan black rhinos who were ultimately rehabilitated into Nairobi National Park.
First Anti-Poaching Team launched in collaboration with the Kenya Wildlife Service in Tsavo Conservation Area.
Daphne Sheldrick is awarded The Moran of the Order of the Burning Spear (MBS) by Kenya's President Daniel arap Moi, in recognition of her work in the conservation and protection of elephants and wildlife.
The SWT launches its first Mobile Veterinary Unit in partnership with the Kenya Wildlife Service in Tsavo.
The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust USA and The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust (UK) are founded.
The Ithumba Reintegration Unit is opened in the northern area of Tsavo East National Park.
Ithumba Camp is built and managed by SWT to support conservation, with funds generated by the camp directed to KWS for wildlife protection projects in the region.
Daphne Sheldrick made a Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire.
The SWT/KWS Mara Mobile Veterinary Unit is founded.
The SWT Aerial Surveillance Unit takes to the skies with the arrival of a Super Cub, providing eyes in the sky in support of existing ground teams.
Kristin Davis, actress and animal advocate, becomes Patron of The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust.
The 100th orphan elephant is successfully rescued and raised by the Sheldrick Wildlife Trust.
SWT opens Umani Lodge in the Kibwezi Forest - an Eco Lodge enabling low impact tourism that generates funds for the protection of the Forest.
At a time when one elephant was being killed every 15 minutes for its ivory, the SWT launches the iworry campaign, calling for a ban on all trade in ivory.
Partner with Lamu Conservation Trust on Project Amu, part of the SWT's Saving Habitats initiative.
The Sheldrick Wildlife Trust launches the 'International March for Elephants', with people taking to the streets in cities around the globe to call for a ban on all ivory trade. (This movement has, through the efforts of individuals and groups around the world, subsequently grown into the Global March for Elephants and Rhinos).
The SWT/KWS Meru Veterinary Unit is formed to provide life saving treatment for sick and injured wild animals in Meru National Park and its environs.
Umani Springs Reintegration Unit is built for vulnerable elephant orphans needing a more gentle environment. It becomes the third Reintegration Unit built and managed by the SWT, as part of the Orphans' Project.
The SWT/KWS Amboseli Mobile Veterinary Unit launched, becoming the fourth veterinary unit funded by the Trust, each providing in-the-field treatment to injured wildlife.
Ithumba Hill Camp is opened, allowing for the development of low impact, responsible tourism that generates funds for the protection of wildlife in Tsavo National Park.
The Canine Unit is established to support anti-poaching operations.
The Trust celebrates 40 years of wildlife protection.
Second rapid response helicopter joins the Aerial Surveillance Unit, allowing for the deployment of more rangers and the canine unit in remote areas, and enabling the rapid rescue and transfer to Nairobi of orphaned infant elephants.
The SWT/KWS Mount Kenya Mobile Veterinary Unit is founded.
Launch of Team Sobo in Tsavo Conservation Area, the 13th SWT/KWS De-Snaring Team.
Dr Dame Daphne Sheldrick, Founder and Chair of The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, passes away at the age of 83 - a lifetime dedicated to the protection and preservation of wildlife and habitats.
Unveiled our new logo honoring elephants and the Sheldrick family
A completely refurbished Galdessa Camp is opened, and like the Trust's other eco lodges, all proceeds generated from the property goes towards conservation projects within Tsavo National Park
The SWT funds a second Anti-Poaching Team in the Mau Forest, operated in partnership with MEP
As the human population expands, pushing wildlife to the very brink of extinction and wild habitats to the edge of destruction, the Sheldrick Trust is determined to reverse the effects of the past and prevent the effects of the present, in the hope for a better future for both wildlife and mankind.
Since its inception the Sheldrick Trust has delivered outstanding results by leading the way in single-species conservation, and in doing so, has evolved into a multi-dimensional conservation body ready to meet the growing challenges faced by Kenya's threatened wildlife and habitats.
The long term goal of the Sheldrick Wildlife Trust is to secure safe havens for wildlife, through the effective management and protection of key ecosystems and wilderness areas in Kenya.
Through close working partnerships with the Kenya Wildlife Service, the custodians of Kenya's wildlife, the Kenya Forest Service and local communities, the Trust can, and is, taking the lead in securing vast tracks of land for wildlife.
The Family behind the Sheldrick Trust
Angela heads The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust and all its operations in Kenya and has done since 2001. Daughter of David and Daphne Sheldrick, Angela was brought up in the wilds of Tsavo East where her famous naturalist father David Sheldrick MBE was the founding warden. She has been exposed to Kenya’s wildlife and wild places all her life.
She was educated first in Kenya and then later in South Africa, studying at the Michaelis School of Fine Art at the University of Cape Town. She later worked for a year on the film ‘Out of Africa’, assistant to the dress designer Milena Canonero, which led to a career in the film industry for the next decade, based out of Cape Town and working around the world.
In 1996 Angela married Robert Carr-Hartley, like herself, a fourth generation Kenyan, who owns a successful bespoke Safari Company, and has known a similarly unique childhood growing up amidst Kenya’s wildlife and wild places.
She returned to live permanently in Kenya, and later took the helm of The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust in 2001, and together with Robert by her side has run the Trust ever since. Angela and Robert designed the very successful digital fostering program in 2001, the first of its kind at the time.
With the help of a dedicated and capable team around them they have grown the Trust into the internationally recognized organization it is today, all the while working closely with her famous mother Dr. Dame Daphne Sheldrick D.B.E. up until Daphne passed away in April 2018.
Robert and Angela have two sons, Taru born in 1998 and Roan born in 2000, both of whom have a passion and commitment to wildlife and conservation.
Angela is a Trustee of both The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust UK, directed by Rob Brandford, and The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust USA, directed by Melissa Sciacca.
Robert Carr-Hartley is a trustee of The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust and Angela Sheldrick’s husband. A technical designer and advisor to the Trust since 2003, he plays an oversight role in aerial and de-snaring initiatives and the implementation of new technology to enhance capacity.
Robert is a fourth generation Kenyan and has lived in Africa all his life. Born in Kenya, he was raised in the bush where he spent his childhood surrounded by African wildlife. Robert worked as a helicopter pilot before beginning a career spanning more than 30 years creating and leading bespoke safaris across Africa, engaging tourists with wild spaces and wildlife. Combining his passion for wildlife preservation and tourism, Robert has played extensive roles in the launch and implementation of private and community conservation efforts including at Borana Lodge and Loisaba Lodge.
Robert sat on the Kenya Wildlife Service Board from 1999 – 2001 where he consolidated his extensive experience in wildlife conservation policy. He sits on numerous conservation not-for-profit boards including the Mara Conservancy and is elected Chairman of the Lamu Conservation Trust, a community led organisation that seeks to protect the land, marine life, cultural heritage of Lamu County. Passionate that conservation efforts must go hand in hand with community development, he has also been involved in community projects around Samburu National Reserve and on the boundary of Tsavo National Park.
In 1996 Robert married Angela Sheldrick with whom he shares a mutual love of the African landscape and its indigenous wildlife, Robert and Angela have two sons, Taru and Roan. Robert is also an award winning photographer and has consulted and advised on several films including Out of Africa and Walt Disney’s The Lion King.
Dr. Dame Daphne Sheldrick DBE
04 June 1934 - 12 April 2018
Dame Daphne Sheldrick was the Founder of The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust and Daphne's involvement with wildlife spanned a lifetime. Born in Kenya on the 4th June 1934, Daphne grew up amongst animals, both wild and domestic before attending Nakuru Primary School and Kenya High School where she enrolled in 1950 with Honours and the possibility of a bursary for University Entrance in the Cambridge School Leaving Certificate, achieving the position of 8th in the Colony. Instead, she opted for marriage.
Recognised as an international authority on the rearing of wild animals, Daphne's success is attributed to her lifelong experience with wild creatures, an in-depth knowledge of animal psychology, the behavioural characteristics of different species, and of course, that most essential component, a sincere and deep empathy.
Through her autobiography (An African Love Story - Love, Life and Elephants), five other books, numerous articles, lectures and television appearances, Daphne has promoted wildlife conservation worldwide. The BBC Documentary Elephant Diaries depicting her work with the orphaned elephants, received worldwide acclaim, as did the 3D IMAX film Born to be Wild, featuring the Sheldrick Wildlife Trust's orphaned elephants and the orangutans of Borneo.
Daphne Sheldrick was decorated by the Queen in 1989 with an MBE due to her dedication to conservation in Kenya. Following this she was elevated to UNEP's elite Global 500 Roll of Honour in 1992 and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery by Glasgow University in June 2000.
In December 2001, Daphne's work was further honoured by the Kenya Government, who presented Daphne with a Moran of the Burning Spear (MBS) followed by a prestigious accolade in 2002 by the BBC of their Lifetime Achievement Award. In the November 2005 issue of the Smithsonian Magazine, Daphne was then named as one of 35 people worldwide who have made a difference in terms of animal husbandry and wildlife conservation.
In the 2006 New Year's Honours List, Queen Elizabeth II appointed Dr Daphne Sheldrick to Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, the first Knighthood to be awarded in Kenya since the country received Independence in 1963.
Daphne passed away on 12th April 2018, and in her 83 years with us, Daphne touched countless lives — from generations of elephants who are thriving today through her trailblazing conservation work, to people all over the world who drew inspiration from her. She is testament to the difference that a single person can make, and her legacy lives on as we continue to protect and preserve wildlife in her memory.
David Sheldrick MBE
23 November 1919 - 13 June 1977
The David Sheldrick Willdife Trust was founded in memory of David in 1977, by his wife Daphne Sheldrick.
David Sheldrick stands out, even today, as one of Africa's most famous and proficient Pioneer National Park Wardens of all time. With just one lorry, and a handful of labourers, he was given the task of transforming a huge chunk of inhospitable arid land, previously uncharted and known only as the Taru desert, into what today is Kenya's largest and most famous National Park - Tsavo.
The Park was established by Act of Parliament in 1948 and David Sheldrick was the first Warden of the Eastern Sector, an area of just over 5,000 square miles, equal in size to Michigan State, Israel or Wales, a post he held until he was transferred to head the Planning Unit for all Kenya's Wildlife Areas at the end of 1976. David died 6 months later, but the legacy he left endures. His character is summed up by Tim Corfield, in the Author's Note to the Field Manual David's Notes and Records inspired - "The Wilderness Guardian" which is now a Text Book throughout Africa in most Wildlife Institutions and Training Schools, and an integral part of every Field Warden's library.
"How can I adequately portray this remarkable man and his achievements? The strong, handsome, weather-beaten face, the hard blue eyes, the powerful frame and large competent hands; the courteous manners, keen sense of humour and clear perceptive mind; his quietness, willpower and endurance, his deep underlying compassion and above all his integrity. To say that he is the finest man I have ever met is inadequate, for what is my experience as a yardstick. I can assert that he was a truly great man; but such a cliché; sheer over-use has blunted the impact of so many powerful words and descriptions. I state simply, then, that in Tsavo National Park a man of quite exceptional stature imposed his will on men and machinery to preserve one of the world's great wildernesses, and thereby set a pattern of development for Kenya's National Parks that was to be the envy of the world. In a tragedy I outline below, this task killed David Sheldrick, but in his death he provided for us immeasurably, both in the systems he left behind, and also in the example of his fight to create a real wilderness sanctuary - not a glorified game ranch, not a Zoo Park, not a scientific experiment nor playground, but an area where wilderness could simply be. Central to his efforts was a belief that wildlife and wilderness were not to be guarded simply for their own sake, but they were a well-spring for our spiritual refreshment - yours and mine and that of future generations.
The Headquarters of Tsavo East under David Sheldrick was an extraordinary world of organisation and discipline. Uniformed Rangers on guard, others setting out on patrol; men in blue overalls tending huge tractors and earth moving machinery, lorries, trucks and trailers lined up for duty; everywhere the drone of machinery and the flash of arc welders as people bustled to and fro in purposeful activity. Then, within a few yards of the Headquarters perimeter, all this was left behind cleanly, and you moved into a contrasting world of thorn-bush and trees, hard horizons and red earth, elephant, gazelle, game trails, birds and birdsong, whisper of grass and rasp of insects - that stirring entanglement of life and space that is an African wilderness. Especially space, huge unfettered space; a vast openness that circles the horizon and arcs across brazen skies; an openness the cloistered townsman cannot comprehend, but which moves him, maybe even frightens him a little, whose timelessness exhilarates. Here the animals are left to live out their lives with the minimum of interference, as they have since time immemorial. Men and machines hold so much potential for domination and destruction, but David Sheldrick willed them the servants of this wilderness.
If you mentioned the word "development" to him, in the context of National Parks, a guarded look would come into his eyes for he was conscious always that the effects of development so easily become a spreading cancer of concrete, steel and squalor; an agglomeration of more and more machines and facilities for more and more people. National Parks he saw as areas offering escape from precisely these things. To properly guard a wilderness a man must have command of an exceptional range of special skills. To quote David himself:
"A National Park Warden is required to carry out many and varied duties. Firstly he must have administrative ability for he will be in charge of a large staff responsible for the development and maintenance of roads, buildings, dams, boreholes, firebreaks, airfields, water supplies etc. He will be responsible for the training and welfare of an armed Ranger Force. In order to do this successfully he must first understand the meaning of discipline - to take orders and give orders in such a manner that they are obeyed. At the same time he must not ask those under him to perform tasks that he would not be prepared to do himself. He must have an understanding of ecology, be capable of reading and drawing up maps and plans, working out costs and preparing realistic estimates, be able to fly an aircraft, have a basic knowledge of the Law, be familiar with the habits of wild animals, and conversant with the use of firearms, for it may be necessary for him to destroy wounded or dangerous animals. He must be able to do this cleanly and without emotion. He should be an ambassador of National Parks at all times and show initiative and resourcefulness greater than that called for in most professions. Above all, he should be absolutely dedicated and of the utmost integrity" David Sheldrick had all these skills, and more.
He had spent time - snatches of it and long unbroken stretches in the quiet company of wild animals and he had learnt to observe and study them with sympathy and understanding, not in the superior and arrogant manner of the Scientists chalking up knowledge, but with the humility and empathy of a born naturalist. His alert and enquiring mind was finely tuned to the complexities of Nature, and the time he spent quietly absorbing her ways engendered strong convictions and a deep underlying confidence in her. This, as much as anything else, fuelled his dogged defence of a natural solution to Tsavo's much publicised "elephant problem" (in the early seventies). There were expedient options open to him which would have appeased the critics of his policies, but David Sheldrick knew that to take these would be an abrogation of his duty both as a Warden and a man. His resolve, then, to protect the wilderness was absolute, and he turned resolutely away from embarking on any precedent that could prove dangerous or lead to abuse, thereby jeopardising the sanctity of the Park he had created and loved so completely.
David's illustrious career with the Royal National Parks of Kenya was honoured in the 1962 Queen's Birthday Honours when he was awarded an MBE. His name is also immortalised in the World Wildlife Funds Roll of Honour. Posted to Nairobi at the end of 1976, he went bravely, and such is the mark of the man that he also went without bitterness, and he launched into his new duties with characteristic vigour. But Tsavo was still there, her wild spaces crying for protection. The home territory needed him as never before, her animals suffering an onslaught of killing and cruelty unprecedented in all her written history (under the new totally Government controlled Wildlife Conservation & Management Department.) As Tsavo had set a mark on his soul, so his life without it was exile. As David once laughingly remarked, "You can cut an old tree down, but you can't transplant it". His good natured humour never left him, but in that remark lay the truth. The old soldier simply could not turn his back and leave. He died on the 13th June 1977 from a massive heart attack.
His wife, Daphne, was beside him when he died, as she had been throughout their married life. Her love and loyalty and her own steadfast qualities gave him strength and purpose when times were dark, and brought fun and laughter into their home. Her garden was an oasis of gentleness and peace in a harsh environment, a place where wild animals could come and go, always welcome, always free. There could be no consolation for her loss, but from David's example there came strength and resolve to continue the purpose of his life. The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust was created in his memory, and as its Chairman, Daphne has been guiding its conservation activities ever since."
David Sheldrick was born in Egypt on 23rd November 1919, under the sound of gunfire during the First World War when his father was serving with the British Remounts. Both David's parents were born in British India, his father an English Coffee Planter in the Nilgiri Hills and his mother an English lady of noble birth raised on one of the famous Houseboats in Kashmir. Born in Egypt, christened in the Seychelles, David first came to Kenya as a babe in arms, when at the end of the First World War his father came to Kenya as part of the British Government's Soldier Settlement Scheme. He bought and took possession of a virgin piece of Africa which he developed into a thriving Coffee Estate near Mweiga, which became one of the models of its time. The famous Treetops Hotel, where Princess Elizabeth became Queen in 1952 was on the Sheldrick's Mweiga Estate and was originally built by David's father.
An only child, David's very English parents wanted the best for their son, and were prepared to make tough sacrifices in order to achieve this. These were the years of the great post-war depression of the 30's, before the age of commercial air travel. David was sent to England for his schooling aged six, first to a Preparatory School and thereafter to the prestigious Canford School. For the next 11 years he grew up in England, spending holidays on a Scottish Estate whose owner took in Colonial boys. David did not see his parents again until he returned home having left school aged 17. When he eventually came back to Kenya as a young man, he walked straight past his mother on the Station without knowing who she was. During his school career he excelled both in sports and academically, but especially in practical skills such as woodwork. He boxed for both his schools throughout his school career and remained unbeaten. He was a skilled marksman, an outstanding horseman, excelling on the Polo Ground. In fact, David excelled in everything he undertook.
Having returned to Kenya, he worked on a highland farm on the Kinangop until the outbreak of the Second World War when he underwent the Officers Training Course at Nakuru before being drafted to The King's African Rifles, seeing active service in both Abyssinnia and Burma. David was quickly promoted to Major, the youngest officer in the K.A.R. to achieve this rank and given his own command of a battalion - the 5th Kings African Rifles. At the end of the War he was amongst those chosen to represent Kenya at the Victory Parade in London.
Thereafter he joined the first Tented Safari Company to be established in Kenya - the famous Safariland and was actually in Tanzania escorting the then Aga Khan on safari when the Kenya National Parks appointments were first advertised in 1948. The then famous Game Warden, Archie Ritchie urged the Director of National Parks, Colonel Mervyn Cowie, to keep a Post open for David Sheldrick who was already a very well-known personality in the Colony. On return from the Aga Khan Safari David applied and was accepted and in April 1948 became the founder Warden of Kenya's largest and most important National Park - Tsavo. He was 28 years old at the time.
David's career with National Parks was equally as illustrious. For two years he walked the Park on foot following the elephant trails, only to find that poaching was already a very serious threat. A combined force of Game Department and National Parks personnel plus the Police was established under David's command, and all work was halted for the next three years whilst this problem was tackled and satisfactorily resolved.
David was ahead of his time. Way back in the early fifties, he was the first person to initiate a comprehensive collection of all the food plants of Elephants, long before any Scientist had even thought of studying elephants. Each plant was analysed for mineral content and nutritional value. He was the first to study the movement pattern of the elephant herds, and was able to counter the scientific theory that the Tsavo population comprised 10 discrete populations rather than just one.
He was the first person to rescue and hand-rear orphaned elephants, (but was successful only with those over two years of age). Many other orphans of misfortune were taken in, nurtured and set free when grown, including Black Rhinos, and most antelope species. David always insisted that any wild animal orphan was only on loan for its dependent years, but that ultimately it must go free. Through the rearing of the orphans David Sheldrick gained an in-depth understanding of the animal psyche and his knowledge of the fauna, the flora, the birds and the insects of his Park was unparalleled at the time. In his small private laboratory he conducted many experiments to fuel his quest for knowledge and gain an understanding of the intricacies of Nature.
An in-depth study of all archival material relating to the habitat of Tsavo as it was when the railroad from Mombasa to Nairobi was installed at the turn of the century was undertaken and masterminded by him; long hours spent perusing the descriptions of people such as Patterson, Krapf, Lugard, Meinetzhagen, Rebmann and Carl Peters. All anecdotes relevant to the Tsavo area were compiled into one Volume in order to gain an overview of what the vegetation of the area must have been like a century ago and an understanding of the natural processes of plant succession he was already beginning to observe taking place. He traced the root systems of the main tree species of Tsavo, carefully exposing and photographing them and comparing them to the root systems of the perennial grasses that were beginning to become established as the elephants modified the habitat from Commiphora woodland to grassland.
Using the orphaned elephants, he undertook experiments to determine the nature of an elephant's digestive tract - how long an orange took to pass through an elephant's gut and appear in the stools during the course of a day, weighing the dung against an estimate of fodder intake and analysing the protein content of the dung. He was the first to understand how Nature has made the elephant the most fragile through its inefficient digestive system, passing 6% protein in the dung.
He undertook a study of the small rodents and frogs of Tsavo, compiled a checklist of the birds and snakes and created a Herbarium over a five year period with every plant photographed in situ and in flower and thereafter pressed. One specimen of each now rests in Kew Gardens in London, another in the Herbarium in Nairobi and a third stored at the Research Centre in Voi. David has a small tree frog and a red mite named for him. He was the first person in the world to discover the presence of what is now known as Sheldrick Falls in the Shimba Hills forest - something that not even the locals new existed.
He made a study of the parasites specific to Black Rhino; the Rhinomusca flies that breed in the middens, the Filarial parasites responsible for the shoulder lesions often seen in Rhino, and other parasites specific to these ancient animals such as the Gyrostrigma fly. He was the first person ever to hatch one of these flies from a bot taken from the dung of one of our orphaned rhinos.
When David Sheldrick first came to Tsavo, not one road or building existed. 28 years later he left a Park fully developed with an infrastructure that was unmatched anywhere in East Africa - 1,087 kms of tourist all weather roads, 853 kms. of administrative roads and 287 kms of anti-poaching tracks in the North, a Headquarters and Workshop to be proud of. With just a few labourers, he constructed the extensive concrete causeway across the Galana River, which has provided access to the remote Northern area of the Park for the past 60 years. The entire infrastructure of Tsavo East National Park, as it is today, owes its existence to him; five Park Entrance Gates, the first Self Catering Lodge at Aruba which was once so popular and so lovely; the vast man-made lake that served the wild residents in terms of permanent water for the next 60 years, even the spectacular position of the Voi Safari Lodge affording breath-taking views over that immense land. He installed boreholes, and Windmills to quench the thirst of Tsavo's vast elephant herds, spreading the load and relieving congestion on the only two permanent rivers. More importantly, he left the blue print that has been the role model for today's paramilitary Field Force Rangers geared to combating the armed incursion of bandit poachers.
And in his Handing Over Notes David Sheldrick had this to say about the then Orphans Project which was already in existence in Tsavo:
"Tsavo East has become internationally famous for its wildlife rehabilitation programme. Over the years many elephant, rhino, buffalo, lesser kudu, impala, eland, warthog, duiker, dikdik, zebra and other animals have been successfully rehabilitated after having been raised in captivity. Much extremely valuable information has been obtained retarding gestation, estrous cycles, growth rates, food preferences, ailments, social structure and general behaviour of these animals under circumstances that are quite unique. Their relationship with man has also given confidence to the wild animals living near the Headquarters, thus providing further opportunities for observation, and given untold pleasure to hundreds of visitors. It is important that the present relationship between man, hand-reared and wild animals should not be disrupted, for it has taken many years to achieve these results and a situation is developing whereby further information, unobtainable elsewhere and of the greatest importance is possible. The female elephant "Eleanor" is now 18 years old, and therefore reached an age when she is ready to breed. As she regularly mixes with the wild elephant, it is anticipated that she will be covered very shortly, probably during the coming rains. The birth of an African Elephant under the conditions that currently exist in Tsavo East would be sensational to say the least, but what is more important, it would present an opportunity to obtain very valuable data; the composition of elephant's milk during the different stages of lactation, growth rates, weight increase, tooth eruption etc. etc."
David Sheldrick was spared having to witness the plunder of his Park in the late seventies, eighties and early nineties which reduced its great elephant herds from 20,000 to a mere 6,000. But one thing we do know and that is today he would have been proud of The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, established in his memory, which has hand-reared for the first time ever, over 33 infant orphaned African Elephants most of whom are now growing up happily in Tsavo. Many other wild creatures have also been nurtured and ultimately returned where they rightly belong and some of our hand-reared elephants and rhinos have, indeed, given birth to wild born young and contributed greatly to our knowledge. However David Sheldrick might have viewed the events that have taken place in Tsavo since his departure, we know that at least that to which he gave maximum priority is still intact - the pristine wilderness and the quality of life its inmates still enjoy. He would look down proudly on the results of the stand he made over the elephant issue, and approved of how the elephants have transformed sterile arid scrubland into a mosaic of rich habitats harbouring a greater biodiversity than ever before. And he would most certainly have approved of the record of the Trust that so proudly carries his name and strives so tirelessly to follow the guidelines he established in life perpetuating his unbending integrity and ideals, still acting as a custodian of "right" in Tsavo, still working to protect and nurture that great wilderness that David loved so well in life and doing so bravely without fear or favour, just as he would have wished.